Special Issue "Innovation and Evidence for Achieving TB Elimination in the Asia–Pacific Region"

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Philipp DuCros
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
International Development, Burnet Institute, Melbourne VIC 3000, Australia
Interests: drug-resistant TB; epidemiology; implementation research
Dr. Hamidah Hussain
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Affiliation: Interactive Research and Development (IRD), Global IRD,583 Orchard Road,#06-01 Forum, 238884 Singapore
Interests: TB active case finding; TB prevention; cost-effectiveness; implementation research
Dr. Kerri Viney
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre for TB Research, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
Research School of Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra 2600, Australia
Interests: drug-resistant TB; research; active TB case finding; catastrophic costs; epidemiology of TB; TB elimination

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Despite being curable, tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health emergency and one of the biggest infectious disease killers globally. Out of all TB cases globally, 62% occur in the South East Asia and Western Pacific regions. There is a need for bold action and accelerated change if the sustainable development goal (SDG) targets of 90% reduction in TB deaths and 80% reduction in TB incidence are to be met by 2030. However, barriers to TB elimination are considerable, with 30% of people with TB globally not diagnosed, only one third with multidrug-resistant TB accessing appropriate treatment, and anywhere between 27% and 83% of people with tuberculosis encountering catastrophic costs. Currently, most high-burden countries and the world as a whole are not on course to reach the targets. There is the need for new tools and better evidence on how to achieve TB elimination.

While the challenges for TB elimination remain large, there is much cause for hope with improved all oral MDR-TB treatments, a richer pipeline of new TB diagnostics and vaccines, and shorter latent TB infection treatment regimens. The lancet series “How to Eliminate Tuberculosis” outlined an evidence-based approach to ending TB into 4 key areas: rethinking data management to target hotspots, active case finding and prompt treatment, treating latent TB infection, and employing a biosocial approach throughout. This Special Issue “Innovation and evidence for achieving TB Elimination in the Asia–Pacific Region” invites submissions within these four broad areas with relevance to the Asia–Pacific region. A broad range of research methodologies will be accepted, including qualitative, epidemiology, operational, implementation, and policy research, as well as other relevant approaches.

Dr. Philipp du Cros
Dr Hamidah Hussain
Dr. Kerri Viney
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.cnfortiles.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Tuberculosis
  • Elimination
  • Active case finding
  • TB infection/latent TB
  • Epidemiology
  • Drug-resistant TB

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Contact Investigation of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients: A Mixed-Methods Study from Myanmar
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5010003 - 26 Dec 2019
Abstract
There is no published evidence on contact investigation among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients from Myanmar. We describe the cascade of contact investigation conducted in 27 townships of Myanmar from January 2018 to June 2019 and its implementation challenges. This was a mixed-methods study [...] Read more.
There is no published evidence on contact investigation among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients from Myanmar. We describe the cascade of contact investigation conducted in 27 townships of Myanmar from January 2018 to June 2019 and its implementation challenges. This was a mixed-methods study involving quantitative (cohort analysis of programme data) and qualitative components (thematic analysis of interviews of 8 contacts and 13 health care providers). There were 556 MDR-TB patients and 1908 contacts, of whom 1134 (59%) reached the health centres for screening (chest radiography and symptoms). Of the latter, 344 (30%) had presumptive TB and of them, 186 (54%) were investigated (sputum microscopy or Xpert MTB/RIF®). A total of 27 TB patients were diagnosed (six bacteriologically-confirmed including five with rifampicin resistance). The key reasons for not reaching township TB centres included lack of knowledge and lack of risk perception owing to wrong beliefs among contacts, financial constraints related to loss of wages and transportation charges, and inconvenient clinic hours. The reasons for not being investigated included inability to produce sputum, health care providers being unaware of or not agreeing to the investigation protocol, fixed clinic days and times, and charges for investigation. The National Tuberculosis Programme needs to note these findings and take necessary action. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Outcomes of Community-Based Systematic Screening of Household Contacts of Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Myanmar
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5010002 - 25 Dec 2019
Abstract
Screening of household contacts of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a crucial active TB case-finding intervention. Before 2016, this intervention had not been implemented in Myanmar, a country with a high MDR-TB burden. In 2016, a community-based screening of household contacts of [...] Read more.
Screening of household contacts of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a crucial active TB case-finding intervention. Before 2016, this intervention had not been implemented in Myanmar, a country with a high MDR-TB burden. In 2016, a community-based screening of household contacts of MDR-TB patients using a systematic TB-screening algorithm (symptom screening and chest radiography followed by sputum smear microscopy and Xpert-MTB/RIF assays) was implemented in 33 townships in Myanmar. We assessed the implementation of this intervention, how well the screening algorithm was followed, and the yield of active TB. Data collected between April 2016 and March 2017 were analyzed using logistic and log-binomial regression. Of 620 household contacts of 210 MDR-TB patients enrolled for screening, 620 (100%) underwent TB symptom screening and 505 (81%) underwent chest radiography. Of 240 (39%) symptomatic household contacts, 71 (30%) were not further screened according to the algorithm. Children aged <15 years were less likely to follow the algorithm. Twenty-four contacts were diagnosed with active TB, including two rifampicin- resistant cases (yield of active TB = 3.9%, 95% CI: 2.3%–6.5%). The highest yield was found among children aged <5 years (10.0%, 95% CI: 3.6%–24.7%). Household contact screening should be strengthened, continued, and scaled up for all MDR-TB patients in Myanmar. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
GeneXpert and Community Health Workers Supported Patient Tracing for Tuberculosis Diagnosis in Conflict-Affected Border Areas in India
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2020, 5(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5010001 - 21 Dec 2019
Abstract
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) has been providing diagnosis and treatment for patients with tuberculosis (TB) via mobile clinics in conflict-affected border areas of Chhattisgarh, India since 2009. The study objectives were to determine the proportion of patients diagnosed with TB and those who [...] Read more.
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) has been providing diagnosis and treatment for patients with tuberculosis (TB) via mobile clinics in conflict-affected border areas of Chhattisgarh, India since 2009. The study objectives were to determine the proportion of patients diagnosed with TB and those who were lost-to-follow-up (LTFU) prior to treatment initiation among patients with presumptive TB between April 2015 and August 2018. The study also compared bacteriological confirmation and pretreatment LTFU during two time periods: a) April 2015–August 2016 and b) April 2017–August 2018 (before and after the introduction of GeneXpert as a first diagnostic test). Community health workers (CHW) supported patient tracing. This study was a retrospective analysis of routine program data. Among 1042 patients with presumptive TB, 376 (36%) were diagnosed with TB. Of presumptive TB patients, the pretreatment LTFU was 7%. Upon comparing the two time-periods, bacteriological confirmation increased from 20% to 33%, while pretreatment LTFU decreased from 11% to 4%. TB diagnosis with GeneXpert as the first diagnostic test and CHW-supported patient tracing in a mobile-clinic model of care shows feasibility for replication in similar conflict-affected, hard to reach areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Funding on Childhood TB Case Detection in Pakistan
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4(4), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4040146 - 15 Dec 2019
Abstract
This study is a review of routine programmatically collected data to describe the 5-year trend in childhood case notification in Jamshoro district, Pakistan from January 2013 to June 2018 and review of financial data for the two active case finding projects implemented during [...] Read more.
This study is a review of routine programmatically collected data to describe the 5-year trend in childhood case notification in Jamshoro district, Pakistan from January 2013 to June 2018 and review of financial data for the two active case finding projects implemented during this period. The average case notification in the district was 86 per quarter before the start of active case finding project in October 2014. The average case notification rose to 322 per quarter during the implementation period (October 2014 to March 2016) and plateaued at 245 per quarter during the post-implementation period (April 2016 to June 2018). In a specialized chest center located in the district, where active case finding was re-introduced during the post implementation period (October 2016), the average case notification was 218 per quarter in the implementation period and 172 per quarter in the post implementation period. In the rest of the district, the average case notification was 160 per quarter in the implementation period and 78 during the post implementation period. The cost per additional child with TB found ranged from USD 28 to USD 42 during the interventions. A continuous stream of resources is necessary to sustain high notifications of childhood TB. Full article
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